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“A profession also has a responsibility, both to the public and its members, to develop and employ a vocabulary for expressing the fundamental concepts on which its discipline is based.” Neville Holmes, The Great Term Robbery.

DEFINITIONS OF DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE, MESSAGE AND LIBRARY

Browsability: "The ability of a retrieval system to lend itself to unsystematic or random searches.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 138.

Capta: "...data which we have decided is relevant and which we therefore know we want to collect."

Checkland, P. and Holwell, S. Information, Systems and Information SystemsWest Sussex : John Wiley and Sons, 2005. Page89.

Citation: “Citation: A note of reference to a work from which a passage is quoted or to some source material as authority for a statement or proposition.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 94.

Collection: “An organized body of stored items.”

Wersig G, Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 135.

Communication: “Communication is a process where something called information is transmitted from one object to another. The first object can be called the source; the second, the destination. A dynamic, interactive feedback can occur between a source and a destination; they can exchange roles.”

Saracevic, Tefko (1975). "Relevance: A Review of and a Framework for the Thinking on the Notion in Information Science." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 26(November-December): 321-343. Cited on page 167 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Data: "In computational systems data are the coded invariances. In human discourse data are that which is stated, for instance, by informants in an empirical study."

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Copenhagen, Denmark. Definition 1 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data "Datum is the representation of concepts or other entities, fixed in or on a medium in a form suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human beings or by automated systems [Wellisch, H.H. (1996). Abstracting, indexing, classification, thesaurus construction: A glossary. Port Aransas, TX: American Society of Indexers]”

Prof. Elsa Barber, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Definition 2 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data is a symbol set that is quantified and/or qualified.”

Prof. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 3 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.]

Data: “Data are sensory stimuli that we perceive through our senses.”

Prof. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Definition 4 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.]

Data: “Datum is every thing or every unit that could increase the human knowledge or could allow to enlarge our field of scientific, theoretical or practical knowledge, and that can be recorded, on whichever support, or orally handed. Data can arouse information and knowledge in our mind."

Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome 1, Italy. Definition 5 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are the basic individual items of numeric or other information, garnered through observation; but in themselves, without context, they are devoid of information.”

Dr. Quentin L. Burrell, Isle of Man International Business School, Isle of Man. Definition 7 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-49

Data: “According to Stonier (1993, 1997), data is a series of disconnected facts and observations. These may be converted to information by analyzing, cross-referring, selecting, sorting, summarizing, or in some way organizing the data. Patterns of information, in turn, can be worked up into a coherent body of knowledge. Knowledge consists of an organized body of information, such information patterns forming the basis of the kinds of insights and judgments which we call wisdom. The above conceptualization may be made concrete by a physical analogy (Stonier, 1993): consider spinning fleece into yarn, and then weaving yarn into cloth. The fleece can be considered analogous to data, the yarn to information and the cloth to knowledge. Cutting and sewing the cloth into a useful garment is analogous to creating insight and judgment (wisdom). This analogy emphasizes two important points: (1) going from fleece to garment involves, at each step, an input of work, and (2) at each step, this input of work leads to an increase in organization, thereby producing a hierarchy of organization.”

Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Mälardalen University, Västerås/Eskilstuna, Sweden). Definition 12 on p. 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “The corpus of information....consists of two types of information - non-data and data. Non-data is nonnumeric.... Data, on the other hand, is numeric, highly formatted and results from analysis.”

Dolan, 1969, p. 41.” “The Role of the Information Scientist,” in International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 1, (1969), pp. 39-50. Cited in The Study of Information, Interdisciplinary Messages, p. 646. “There are writers who insist that data consist entirely of numbers. (FOOTNOTE 6: “The corpus of information....consists of two types of information - non-data and data. Non-data is non-numeric....Data, on the other hand, is numeric, highly formatted and results from analysis.” Dolan, 1969, p. 41.)”

Data: “Datum is a unique piece of content related to an entity.”

Prof. Henri Dou, University of Aix-Marseille III, France. Definition 13 on p. 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: "Data are a set of symbols representing a perception of raw facts (i.e., following Debons, Horne, and Cronenweth (1988), events from which inferences or conclusions can be drawn).“

Prof. Nicolae Dragulanescu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania. Definition 14 on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493. Debons, A., Horne, E., and Cronenweth, S. (1988). Information science: An integrated view. New York: G.K. Hall.

Data: "Here, data typically means the “raw” material obtained from observation (broadly understood, but not necessarily, as “sense impressions,” which is a key notion of empiricist philosophy). Such data is typically quantitative, presented in numbers and figures."

Prof. Hamid Ekbia, University of Redlands, Redlands, CA. Definition 15 on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are a string of symbols.”

Prof. Raya Fidel, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Definition 17 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are representations of facts about the world.”

Dr. H.M. Gladney, HMG Consulting, McDonald, PA. Definition 19 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: "(pl.): The representation of information in a formalised manner suitable for communication, interpretation and processing, generally by a computer system. Note: the term ‘raw data’ refers to unprocessed information."

Glossary by the International Records Management Trust, at http:// www.irmt.org/documents/educ_training/educ_resource/IRMT_ed_rec_glossary.doc

Data: “Data (/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DA-tə, or /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə) is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. An example of qualitative data is an anthropologist's handwritten note about his or her interviews with indigenous people. Pieces of data are individual pieces of information. While the concept of data is commonly associated with scientific research, data is collected by a huge range of organizations and institutions, including businesses (e.g., sales data, revenue, profits, stock price), governments (e.g., crime rates, unemployment rates, literacy rates) and non-governmental organizations (e.g., censuses of the number of homeless people by non-profit organizations).”

Haider, S. Glossary of Library and Information Science, Librarianship Studies and Information Technology. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2017/11/data.html

Data: “Data is one or more kinds of energy waves or particles (light, heat, sound, force, electromagnetic) selected by a conscious organism or intelligent agent on the basis of a pre- existing frame or inferential mechanism in the organism or agent.”

Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX) Definition 20 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are facts and statistics that can be quantified, measured, counted, and stored.”

Dr. Donald Hawkins, Information Today, Medford, NJ. Definition 21 on p. 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “…that which is recorded as symbols from which other symbols may be produced”

Hayes RM. Information science in librarianship. Libri, v. 19, no. 3, 1969: 216-36.

Data: “Data are dynamic objects of cultural experience having the aspect of being meaning-neutral and a dual nature of description and instruction.”

Mr. Ken Herold, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Definition 23 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are the raw observations about the world collected by scientists and others, with a minimum of contextual interpretation.”

Prof. William Hersh, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR. Definition 24 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “A general term for quantitative or numerically encoded information, particularly used for information stored in a database. The word is, however, frequently used in a casual way with a sense not especially different from ‘information ‘, as, for instance, in a phrase like ‘biological data ‘."

International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, p. 120.

Data: “reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing”

International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 2382:2015(en) Information technology — Vocabulary. Copied 2019-06-06 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en

Data: “Data are atomic facts, basic elements of “truth,” without interpretation or greater context. It is related to things we sense.”

Prof. Donald Kraft, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Definition 25 on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Datum (in our sector mainly electronic) is the conventional representation, after coding (using ASCII, for example), of information.”

Prof. Yves François Le Coadic, National Technical University, Lyon, France. Definition 27 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are commonly seen as simple, isolated facts, though products of intellectual activity in their rough shape.”

Dr. Jo Link-Pezet, Urfist, and University of Social Sciences, France. Definition 28 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “Data are the pure and simple facts without any particular structure or organization, the basic atoms of information.”

Logan, R. K. What is Information?. 2014 Toronto, Canada. DEMO Publishing. Forward, page 2, and Chapter 2, page 22 of 29. Accessed 2019-06-12 at https://www.demopublishing.com/book/what-is-information/foreword/

Data: “Data are formalized parts (i.e., digitalized contents) of sociocultural information potentionally proccessable by technical facilities which disregard the cognitive process and that is why it is necessary to provide them with meanings from outside (i.e., they are objective).”

Mr. Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic). Definition 29 on page 484-5 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: "Data", as the plural form of the Latin word "datum", means "things that have been given." It is, therefore, an apt term for the sort of information-as-thing that has been processed in some way for use. Commonly "data" denotes whatever records are stored in a computer. (See Machlup (1983, p. 646-649) for a discussion of the use and mis-use of the term "data".)"

Information as Thing, M. Buckland, 1991

Data: “Data are perceptible or perceived — if and when the signal can be interpreted by the ‘user’—attributes of physical, biological, social or conceptual entities.”

Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT management consultant, France. Definition 30 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are sets of characters, symbols, numbers, and audio/visual bits that are represented and/or encountered in raw forms. Inherently, knowledge is needed to decipher data and turn them into information.”

Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Definition 31 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58,479-493.

Data: “Data is a collection of signs, usually brought together for some purpose, to store or transmit information. They are usually numeric, pictorial or linguistic.”

Mingers, J. (2013) Prefiguring Floridi’s Theory of Semantic Information. Communication, Capitalism and Critique, 11 (2) file:///C:/Users/Dan/AppData/Local/Packages/Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge_8wekyb3d8bbwe/TempState/Downloads/436-Article%20Text-1806-1-10-20130815%20(4).pdf

Data: “A subset of information in an electronic format that allows it to be retrieved or transmitted.”

National Information Assurance Glossary, Committee on National Security Systems Instruction Number 4009, April 26, 2010

Data:

”Information in a specific representation, usually as a sequence of symbols that have meaning.”

”A variable-length string of zero or more (eight-bit) bytes.”

” Pieces of information from which “understandable information” is derived.”

”Distinct pieces of digital information that have been formatted in a specific way.”

”A representation of information as stored or transmitted.”

”Any piece of information suitable for use in a computer.”

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Glossary. Copied 2019-06-01 from https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/data

Data: “Data are raw material of information, typically numeric.”

Prof. Charles Oppenheim, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 32 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Datum is an object or crude fact perceived by the subject, non-constructed nor elaborated in the consciousness, without passing through neither analysis processes nor evaluation for its transfer as information.”

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are primitive symbolic entities, whose meaning depend on it integration within a context that allow their understanding by an interpreter.” [(Belkin, N.J., and Robertson, S.E. (1976). Information science and the phenomenon of information. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 27, 197–204] [Blair, D.C. (2002). Knowledge management: Hype, hope or help? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(12), 1019–1028)]

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data, information, knowledge, message. I am unable to understand why data, information, knowledge and message are placed on the same level of analysis. I would suggest considering message as the “vehicle” carrying either data or information (which can be taken as synonymous).”

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493]

Data: “The plural of the Latin word datum, meaning "what is given," often used as a singular collective noun. Facts, figures, or instructions presented in a form that can be comprehended, interpreted, and communicated by a human being or processed by a computer. Compare with information and knowledge. See also: data bank, database, data set, and metadata."

https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_d.aspx

Reitz, J. M. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. ABC-CLIO, LLC. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_i.aspx

Data: “Data are a representation of facts or ideas in a formalized manner, and hence capable of being communicated or manipulated by some process. So: data is related to facts and machines. (Holmes, N. (2001). The great term robbery. Computer, 34(5), 94–96.).”

Prof. Ronald Rousseau, KHBO, and University of Antwerp. Definition 36 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “Data are the building blocks of information and knowledge. In this sense, data are numbers, letters, or symbols. Some data are more readily processed by a computer than others. The term often implies that meaning is as yet absent, or unasigned, as in raw data. The numbers stored in a computer file are referred to as a data set. Although the terms data and information are often used synonymously, a greater understanding can be gained by noting their distinctive characteristics.”

Rubin, R. E. (2016) Foundations of Library and Information Science. Chicago, IL, Neaal-Schuman. Pages 360-.1

Data: “Datum is a quantifiable fact that can be repeatedly measured.”

Mr. Scott Seaman, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. [Definition 37 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are raw evidence, unprocessed, eligible to be processed to produce knowledge.”

Prof. Richard Smiraglia, Long Island University, Brookville, NY. Definition 38 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “Data are discrete items of information that I would call facts on some subject or other, not necessarily set within a fully worked out framework.”

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK) [Definition 39 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “Sometimes a distinction is made between the mechanistic representation of the symbols, which is called data,’ and the meaning attributed to the symbols, which is called ‘information’.

Teichroew, 1978, p. 658.” Footnote 11 on page 648 of The Study of Information, Interdisciplinary Messages, p. 647. Teichroew, D., “Information Systems,” in Encyclopedia of Computer Science (New York: Petrocelli/ Charter, 1978), pp. 657-660.

Data: “Data are facts that are the result of observation or measurement."

Landry, B.C., Mathis, B.A., Meara, N.M., Rush, J.E., and Young, C.E. (1970). Definition of some basic terms in computer and information science, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 24(5), 328–342.” Prof. Carol Tenopir, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Definition 40 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are unprocessed, unrelated raw facts or artifacts.”

Joanne Twining, Intertwining.org, a virtual information consultancy, USA. Definition 41 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: A representation by signs of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for ‘communication’ interpretation or processing by humans or by automatic means.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 72.

Data: “Data are representations of facts and raw material of information.”

Prof. Anna da Soledade Vieira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Definition 42 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are alphabetic or numeric signs, which without context do not have any meaning.”

Prof. Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs, Sweden. Definition 43 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are artifacts that reflect a phenomenon in natural or social world in the form of figures, facts, plots, etc.”

Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), Beijing, China. Definition 44 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data...are transformations of observable actions. They are measurements which have been made on physical quantities.”

Yovits, M. C. (1969), Information science: Toward the development of a true scientific discipline. Amer. Doc., 20: 369-376.

Data: “The word “data” is commonly used to refer to records or recordings encoded for use in computer, but is more widely used to refer to statistical observations and other recordings or collections of evidence.”

Definition 6 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data is the plural of datum, although the singular form is rarely used. Purists who remember their first-year Latin may insist on using a plural verb with data, but they forget that English grammar permits collective nouns. Depending on the context, data can be used in the plural or as a singular word meaning a set or collection of facts. Etymologically, data, as noted, is the plural of datum, a noun formed from the past participle of the Latin verb dare–to give. Originally, data were things that were given (accepted as “true”). A data element, d, is the smallest thing which can be recognized as a discrete element of that class of things named by a specific attribute, for a given unit of measure with a given precision of measurement (Rush and Davis, 2007; Landry and Rush, 1970; Yovits and Ernst, 1970).”

Page 481 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Raw data (sometimes called source data or atomic data) is data that has not been processed for use. [In the spirit of Tom Stonier’s definition—Data: a series of disconnected facts and observations] Here “unprocessed” might be understood in a sense that no specific effort has been made to interpret or understand the data. They are the result of some observation or measurement process, which has been recorded as “facts of the world.” The word data is the plural of Latin datum, “something given”, which one also could call “atomic facts. Information is the end product of data processing. Knowledge is the end product of information processing. In much the same way as raw data are used as input, and processed in order to get information, the information itself is used as input for a process that results in knowledge.”

Page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data can be defined as a class of information objects, made up of units of binary code that are intended to be stored, processed, and transmitted by digital computers. As such, data consists of information in a narrow sense—i.e., as inscribed in binary code, units of data are not likely to be immediately meaningful to a human being. But units of data, as “informational building blocks,” when collected and processed properly, can form information in the broader sense (see below), i.e., that is more likely to be meaningful to a human being (as sense-making beings).”

Cited on p. 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: "It depends on your framework. If you are a Kantian, it is the foundation for the a priori categories of the understanding. If you are a computer programmer it is preprocessed information (data collected according to some algorithm for some purpose) or post-processed information (e.g., tables of such information). In this latter case data cannot be defined apart from information, because it is dependent on it. If you are a biologist, it might be stimuli, but these scientific approaches are built on a faulty understanding of perception (e.g., perception is sensations (i.e., stimuli) glued together—which is false)."

Cited on p. 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are observations and measurements you make on objects (artifacts, sites, seeds, bones) and on their contexts. Data are theory-laden. Regarding the theory of knowledge organization we may say that knowledge is not organized by elements called data combined or processed according to some algorithmic procedure. What data are is domain specific and theory-laden. At the most general level what is seen as data is depending of the epistemological view that one subscribes to.”

Cited on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are primitive symbolic entities, whose meaning depend on it integration within a context that allow their understanding by an interpreter. Information is the intentional composition of data by a sender with the goal of modifying the knowledge state of an interpreter or receiver. Knowledge is the intelligent information processing by the receiver and it consequent incorporation to the individual or social memory [(Belkin, N.J., and Robertson, S.E. (1976). Information science and the phenomenon of information. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 27, 197–204] [Blair, D.C. (2002). Knowledge management: Hype, hope or help? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(12), 1019–1028)]”

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data Element: "1. A basic unit of information built on standard structures having a unique meaning and distinct units or values. 2. In electronic recordkeeping, a combination of characters or bytes referring to one separate item of information, such as name, address, or age."

Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, (Washington DC: The Joint Staff, 2019) Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/dictionary.pdf

Datum: "sing. or pl. n. (datum, sing.) ~ Facts, ideas, or discrete pieces of information, especially when in the form originally collected and unanalyzed. Notes: Traditionally a plural noun, data - rather than datum - is now commonly used with a singular verb. Data often is used to refer to information in its most atomized form, as numbers or facts that have not been synthesized or interpreted, such as the initial readings from a gauge or obtained from a survey. In this sense, data is used as the basis of information, the latter distinguished by recognized patterns or meaning in the data. The phrase 'raw data' may be used to distinguish the original data from subsequently 'refined data'. Data is independent of any medium in which it is captured. Data is intangible until it has been recorded in some medium. Even when captured in a document or other form, the content is distinct from the carrier."

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Demand Study: "The degree of correspondence of the outputs of an information or documentation system and the needs of the user expressed by the user.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 171.

Digital Library: "Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities."

Digital Library Foundation. A working definition of digital library [1998] Copied 2019-05-29 from https://old.diglib.org/about/dldefinition.htm

Document: “In other words, anything in which knowledge is recorded is a document, and documentation is any process which serves to make a document available to the seeker after knowledge. (p. 1)”

Besterman, Theodore (1945). "Introductory Note." Journal of Documentation l(June). Bishop, Charles (1953). "An Integrated Approach to the Documentation Problem." American Documentation 4(January): 54-65. Cited on page 162 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Document: “n. ~ 1. Any written or printed work; a writing. - 2. Information or data fixed in some media. - 3. Information or data fixed in some media, but which is not part of the official record; a nonrecord. - 4. A written or printed work of a legal or official nature that may be used as evidence or proof; a record.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Document: “[A document is] defined as anything which represents or expresses, by the aid of any signs whatever (writing, image, diagram, symbols), an object, a fact or an impression. They register all that is discovered, thought, imagined, projected, from day to day.

Weitenkampf, Frank (1908). "The Institut Internationale de Bibliographie." Library Journal 33(October): 403-404. Cited on page 172 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Document: "A unit consisting of a data medium, the data recorded on it, and the meaning assigned to the data."

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 89.

Documentation: “Though this technique [of documentation] covers all fields of knowledge, it has received its chief support in the fields of industry, technology, and business, which possess the largest mass of literature and require the speediest information service. . The enormous increase in scientific publication has given rise to problems of organizing, disseminating, and evaluating knowledge which are as urgent as those of acquiring it. . . . Since libraries are chiefly concerned with the preservation of printed matter, the documentation center has been created to supply, organize and evaluate the materials and the results of research in whatever form they appear. . . . Documentation is a work of synthesis as well as of analysis; the mass of isolated data must be systematized by the use of the Universal Decimal Classification or one of its alternatives, . . .

Ansteinsson, J. (1939). "Wissenschaft und forschung." Abstract in Library Literature, 1936-1939: 1348. (p. 1348 in Library Literature, 1936-1939). Cited on page 139 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Documentation: “[Information work is] the collection, collation, evaluation, and organized dissemination of scientific and technical information. If by "technical" there is to be understood any field having established techniques, then the definition will still be adequate, (p. 674)”

Farradane, J. (1972). "The Institute of Information Scientists." In British Librarianship and Information Science, 1966-1970, ed. H.A. Whatley. London: The Library Association, 1972, pp. 673-675. Cited on page 141 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Documentation: “The management of documents, which may include the actions of identifying, acquiring, processing, storing, and disseminating them. (2) (ISO) A collection of documents on a given subject, (p. 134)”

International Business Machines (1981). Vocabulary for Data Processing, Telecommunications, and Office Systems. Poughkeepsie: International Business Machines. Cited on page 142 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Documentation: Information work is distinct from librarianship and should in no way be confused with it. It is defined as the collection, collation, evaluation and organized dissemination of scientific and technical information, which includes such practices as (1) abstracting, reviewing progress and other similar technical writing; (2) translating scientific and technical writings; (3) editing such writings as emerge from (1) and (2); (4) indexing, subject classification and retrieval of scientific and technical information; (5) searching scientific and technical literature, preparing bibliographies, reports, etc.; (6) obtaining and providing scientific and technical information and tendering advice thereon; (7) dissemination of information and liaison and field work for that purpose; (8) research on problems in information work. (p. 225)”

Landau, Thomas, ed. (1958). Encyclopaedia of Librarianship. New York: Hafner. Cited on pages 140-1 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Documentation: [Documentation] means the activity linked with documents, as well as a collection of documents. Documentation can be understood as a technique— that is, a practical skill, as a system of organization of intellectual work, and as a theoretical science. The responsibility of documentation is to provide information based on documents concerning all the facts or scientific data. This information should be exhaustive, authentic, complete, rapid, up-to-date, easily accessible, anticipating the request and ready to be communicated, put at the disposal of the greatest number of users. The documentation practice embraces: a systematic collecting of documents, their classification, organization, presentation in the form of bibliographical descriptions including characteristics of contents, or in the form of monographs . . . the use of mechanical or chemical media in processes of production, reproduction, mimeographing, classifying, selection and dissemination of documents. The theory of documentation . . . bibliology or documentology . . . is concerned with the systematization of knowledge on documentation with definition of notions and with terminology, with the determination of the subject of investigations, with determination of the relation of documentology to other sciences within the general framework of science classification, with the organization of research and studies, with the history of bibliological sciences, (quoted by Dembowska, 1968, pp. 55-57, from his Traite de documentation. Le livre sur le livre. Theorie et practique. Brusells, 1934)”

Otlet, Paul (1934). Traite de documentation. Le livre sur le livre. Theorie et pratique. Brussels. Quoted bv Dembowska, 196S, pp. 55-57. Cited on pages 166-7 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Documentation: “At the turn of this century documentation emerged, which defined the problem at that time as one of the organization of knowledge; thus, it developed a concern with classification, indexing, etc. After the second World War information science emerged, which defined the problem at that time as one of providing the scientist with information; thus it developed a concern with relevance for it was perceived that the amounts of nonrelevance endanger communication.”

Saracevic, Tefko (1975). "Relevance: A Review of and a Framework for the Thinking on the Notion in Information Science." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 26(November-December): 321-343. Cited on page 167 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Documentation: “n. ~ 1. Materials created or collected to provide facts for reference, especially when created to substantiate decisions, actions, or events. - 2. Citations, including footnotes, endnotes, bibliographies, and similar devices, that indicate an author's sources. - 3. Computing · Instructions, specifications, and other descriptive information relating to the installation and use of hardware, software, systems, or files.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Documentation: “Documentation as the designation of the total complex of activities involved in the communication of specialized information includes the activities which constitute special librarianship plus the prior activities of preparing and reproducing materials and the subsequent activity of distribution. ... To the extent that responsibility for preparing primary materials is corporate rather than individual and to the extent that the initial preparation is guided and determined by the ultimate purpose of distribution to a special audience, I think that preparation of the document is a part of documentation. (p. 166)”

Taube, Mortimer (1952). "Special Librarianship and Documentation." American Documentation 3(August): 166-167. Cited on page 176 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Entry: "A set of data representing a document in a ‘file’ (e.g. in a catalogue, a bibliography or an index.)"

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 103.

Entry Word: "The word by which an ‘entry’ is arranged in a ‘file.’"

WersigG, Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 103.

General Definition of Information: See “Information, General Definition of"

Global Information Grid: “The globally interconnected, end-to-end set of information capabilities for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating, and managing information on demand to warfighters, policy makers, and support personnel. The GIG includes owned and leased communications and computing systems and services, software (including applications), data, security services, other associated services, and National Security Systems. Non-GIG information technology (IT) includes stand-alone, self-contained, or embedded IT that is not, and will not be, connected to the enterprise network. Rationale: Term has been replaced by the term “Department of Defense information networks (DODIN)”.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Glossary. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/Global-Information-Grid

Global Village: “The entire world considered as a single human community served by electronic media and information technology that transcends physical distance, a concept pioneered in the 1960s by Canadian communication theorist Marshall McLuhan, who predicted the Internet as an extension of human consciousness. The concept is also found in the Maha Upanishad in the Sanskrit term vasudhaiva kutumbakam from vasudha ("the earth"), iva ("is as"), and kutumbakam ("family").”

Reitz, J. M. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. ABC-CLIO, LLC. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_i.aspx

Information: "Information is related to meaning or human intention. In computational systems information is the contents of databases, the web, etc. In human discourse systems information is the meaning of statements as they are intended by the speaker/writer and understood/misunderstood by the listener/reader."

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Copenhagen, Denmark. Definition 1 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is (1) a message used by a sender to represent one or more concepts within a communication process, intended to increase knowledge in recipients. (2) A message recorded in the text of a document.”

Prof. Elsa Barber, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Definition 2 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is a set of significant signs that has the ability to create knowledge . . . The essence of the information phenomenon has been characterized as the occurrence of a communication process that takes place between the sender and the recipient of the message. Thus, the various concepts of information tend to concentrate on the origin and the end point of this communication process."

Prof. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 3 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient (Davis and Olson, 1985). (Davis, G.B., and Olson, M.H. (1985). Management information systems. New York: McGraw Hill).”

Prof. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Definition 4 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “In fact, what we mean by information - the elementary unit of information - is a difference which makes a difference, and is able to make a difference because the neural pathways along which it travels and is continuously transformed are themselves provided with energy.”

Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. San Francisco: Chandler Pub. Co. Page 459.

Information: “From a semiotic viewpoint, information, or more strictly any communication of information, can be seen to have four distinct aspects: empiric, dealing with technical and physical aspects; syntactic, dealing with grammar and language; semantic, dealing with meaning; and pragmatic, dealing with context, use and consequence (see, for example, Libenau and Backhouse [1]).”

Bawden, David. The Shifting Terminologies of Information. Aslib Proceedings, Vol 53, Iss. 3, (Mar 2001): 93.

Information: “...a multidisciplinary field of study, involving several forms of knowledge, given coherence by a focus on the central concept of human recorded information.”

Bawden, David. “Organised complexity, meaning and understanding: An approach to a unified view of information for information science” Aslib Proceedings, Vol 59, Iss. 4/5, ( 2007): 307-27.

Information: “Information is the change determined in the cognitive heritage of an individual. Information always develops inside of a cognitive system, or a knowing subject. Signs that constitute the words by which a document or a book has made are not information. Information starts when signs are in connection with an interpreter (Morris, C.W. (1938). Foundations of the theory of signs. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.)."

Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome 1, Italy. Definition 5 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is that which is conveyed, and possibly amenable to analysis and interpretation, through data and the context in which the data are assembled.”

Dr. Quentin L. Burrell, Isle of Man International Business School, Isle of Man. Definition 7 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “The physicist and philosopher Carl-Friedrich von Weizsacker conceives of information as a twofoldcategory: (1)information is only that which is understood; (2) information is only that which generatesinformation (Weizsacker, 1974” - [Weizsacker, C. F. von (1974).Die Einheit der Natur [The unity of nature].Munich, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag."

Capurro, R, and Hjørland, B. (2003) The Concept of Information. Information Science and Technology, 37(1), 343-411.

Information: "Meaningful selected data in a context."

Checkland, P. and Holwell, S. Information, Systems and Information SystemsWest Sussex : John Wiley and Sons, 2005. Page 219.

Information: “Information equals data plus meaning”

Checkland, P and Scholes, J. (1990) Soft Systems Methodology in Action. Chichester: Wiley. Cited on page 393 of Mingers, J. (2013) Prefiguring Floridi’s Theory of Semantic Information. Communication, Capitalism and Critique, 11 (2) file:///C:/Users/Dan/AppData/Local/Packages/Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge_8wekyb3d8bbwe/TempState/Downloads/436-Article%20Text-1806-1-10-20130815%20(4).pdf

Information: “Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient.”

Davis, G.B., and Olson, M.H. (1985). Management information systems. New York: McGraw Hill. Cited on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: "Data “may be converted to information by analyzing, cross-referring, selecting, sorting, summarizing, or in some way organizing the data.”

Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Mälardalen University, Västerås/ Eskilstuna, Sweden. Definition 12 on p. 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “Information is the sum of the data related to an entity.”

Prof. Henri Dou, University of Aix-Marseille III, France. Definition 13 on p. 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “Information is organized data (answering the following basic questions: What? Who? When? Where?).”

Prof. Nicolae Dragulanescu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania. Cited on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that is communicated, has meaning, has an effect, has a goal.”

Prof. Raya Fidel, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Definition 17 on p. 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information, General Definition of: In the General Definition of Information (GDI) “σ is an instance of information, understood as semantic content, if and only if:

GDI.l) a consists of n data, for n ≥ 1;

GDI.2) the data are well formed;

GDI.3) the well-formed data are meaningful.”

Floridi, L. (2010) Information: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Information: “Information is data organized according to an ontology that defines the relationships between some set of topics. Information can be communicated.”

Dr. H.M. Gladney, HMG Consulting, McDonald, PA. Definition 19 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer.”

Haider, S. Glossary of Library and Information Science, Librarianship Studies and Information Technology. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2017/10/information.html

Informtion: “Information is an organism’s or an agent’s active or latent inferential frame that guides the selection of data for its own further development or construction.”

Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Definition 20 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that has been categorized, counted, and thus given meaning, relevance, or purpose.”

Dr. Donald Hawkins, Information Today, Medford, NJ. Definition 21 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is dynamic objects of cultural experience having the aspect of being belief-neutral and a dual nature of content and medium.”

Mr. Ken Herold, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Definition 23 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the aggregation of data to make coherent observations about the world.”

Prof. William Hersh, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR. Definition 24 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “(information processing) knowledge concerning objects, such as facts, events, things, processes, or ideas, including concepts, that within a certain context has a particular meaning”

International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 2382:2015(en) Information technology — Vocabulary. Copied 2019-06-06 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en

Information: “(information theory) knowledge which reduces or removes uncertainty about the occurrence of a specific event from a given set of possible events”

International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 2382:2015(en) Information technology — Vocabulary. Copied 2019-06-06 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en

Information: “What is it that we mean when we say that we are going to investigate the properties and behavior of information? Does information have properties? What is information? What is it that we are studying? (p. 339)”

Klempner, Irving M. (1969). "Information Science Unlimited? ... A Position Paper." American Documentation 20(0ctober) : 339-343. Also published as "A Unified Curriculum for Information Science." College and Research Libraries 30(July): 335-341. Cited on page 144 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information: “Information is a set of facts with processing capability added, such as context, relationships to other facts about the same or related objects, implying an increased usefulness. Information provides meaning to data.”

Prof. Donald Kraft, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LO. Definition 26 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is knowledge recorded on a spatiotemporal support.”

Prof. Yves François Le Coadic, National Technical University, Lyon, France. Definition 27 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is a relationship between an inner arrangement (i.e., a priori set structure (Sˇmajs and Krob, 2003), implicate order [FOOTNOTE 3: The concepts of implicate and explicate orders are explained in Bohm (1980).] of a system and its present embodiment in reality (explicate order) including mediating memory processes (i.e., historically dependent processes) releasing the meaning.”

Mr. Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic. Definition 29 on pages 484-5 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is produced by all processes and it is the values of characteristices in the processes' output that are information.”

Losee, R. M. A Discipline Independent Definition of Information. J. of the American Society for Information Science. 48 (3) 1997, 254-269.

Information: “A further question is what factual situations do exist that are derived from and linked with 'information' and how to define them, depending on whether the 'information' is the information process, information need, individual information demands, information source, information means, information work, information body or centre, information system, or others. A particular question is in which way the 'information' and the factual situations linked with it are being reflected by some mental process on this or that level as a problem in information, how they are to be investigated and defined by scientific methods, and what terms to use to designate these scientific reflections.”

Leupolt, M. (1981). "Information Science: Its Object and Terminology." International Forum on Information and Documentation 6(April): 19-23, Cited on page 153 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information: “Information is structured data, which adds meaning to the data and gives it context and significance.”

Logan, R. K. What is Information?. 2014 Toronto, Canada. DEMO Publishing. Forward, page 2, and Chapter 2, page 22 of 29. Accessed 2019-06-12 at https://www.demopublishing.com/book/what-is-information/foreword/

Information: "Data processed and assembled into a meaningful form."

Meadows, A. J. et al. (1984) Dictionary of Computing and New Information Technology. London: Kegan Paul. Cited in Buckland, M. Information as Thing.Journal of the American Society of Information Science 42:5 (June 1991): 351-360.

Information: “Information is recorded and organized data that can be communicated (Porat, M.V., and Rubin, M. (1977). The information economy: Definition and measurement (OT Special publication, Vol. 1, pp. 77–120). Washington DC: Office of Telecommunications, U.S. Department of Commerce.) However, it is advisable to distinguish between the various states or conditions of information (e.g. information-as an object [(Buckland, M. (1991b). Information as thing. Journal of the American Society of Information Science, 42(5), 351–360.)], or semantic, syntactic and paradigmatic states [(Menou, M.J. (1995). The impact of information (Part 2): Concepts of information and its value. Information Processing and Management, 31(4), 479–490).”

Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT management consultant, France. Definition 30 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is facts, figures, and other forms of meaningful representations that when encountered by or presented to a human being are used to enhance his/her understanding of a subject or related topics.”

Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Definition 31 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58,479-493.

Information: “Any communication or representation of knowledge such as facts, data, or opinions in any medium or form, including textual, numerical, graphic, cartographic, narrative, or audiovisual.”

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Glossary. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/information

Information: “Information is data which is collected together with commentary, context and analysis so as to be meaningful to others.”

Prof. Charles Oppenheim, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 32 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “Information is a phenomenon generated from knowledge and integrated therein, analyzed and interpreted to achieve the transfer process of message (i.e., meaningful content) and the cognitive transformations of people and communities, in a historical, cultural and social context.”

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the intentional composition of data by a sender with the goal of modifying the knowledge state of an interpreter or receiver.”

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Data, information, knowledge, message. I am unable to understand why data, information, knowledge and message are placed on the same level of analysis. I would suggest considering message as the “vehicle” carrying either data or information (which can be taken as synonymous)."

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Data presented in readily comprehensible form to which meaning has been attributed within the context of its use. In a more dynamic sense, the message conveyed by the use of a medium of communication or expression. Whether a specific message is informative or not depends in part on the subjective perception of the person receiving it. More concretely, all the facts, conclusions, ideas, and creative works of the human intellect and imagination that have been communicated, formally or informally, in any form. In his inaugural address of 1801, Thomas Jefferson listed the "diffusion of information" as one of the fundamental principles of the republican form of government established under the Constitution of the United States.”

Reitz, J. M. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. ABC-CLIO, LLC. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_i.aspx

Information: “Information is the meaning that a human assigns to data by means of the known conventions used in its representation. Information is related to meaning and humans (Holmes, N. (2001). The great term robbery. Computer, 34(5), 94–96.)”

Prof. Ronald Rousseau, KHBO, and University of Antwerp. Definition 36 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: ”Information has a very long etymological history. Early senses of the term suggested that information involved a “forming” or “moulding of the mind” (Oxford English Dictionary 1989, p. 944). In this early sense, the soul might be “informed.” Although not a current usage of the term, it is suggestive of the powers of information. The verb form of the term, “the action of informing” or the “communication of the knowledge or 'news' of some fact or occurrence” (OED, p,. 944) suggests both an active process and the object being communicated. It is the “knowledge communicated concerning some particular fact, subject, or event; that which one is apprised of or told; intelligence, news” (OED, p. 944).”

Rubin, R. E. (2016) Foundations of Library and Information Science. Chicago, IL, Neaal-Schuman. Page 361-2

Information: “Information is an organized collection of disparate datum.”

Mr. Scott Seaman, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Definition 37 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the process of becoming informed; it is dependent on knowledge, which is processed data. Knowledge perceived, becomes information.”

Prof. Richard Smiraglia, Long Island University, Brookville, NY. Definition 38 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “n. ~ 1. A collection of data, ideas, thoughts, or memories. - 2. The meaningful portion of a signal, as distinguished from noise. - 3. Law · Formal criminal charges against an individual made by a prosecutor without a grand jury.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Information: “Information is facts and ideas communicated (or made available for communication).”

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 39 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is meaningful data. Or data arranged or interpreted in a way to provide meaning.”

Prof. Carol Tenopir, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Definition 40 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data or knowledge processed into relations (between data and recipient).”

Joanne Twining, Intertwining.org, a virtual information consultancy, USA. Definition 41 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data organized to produce meaning.”

Prof. Anna da Soledade Vieira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Definition 42 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is a set of significant signs that has the ability to create knowledge . . . The essence of the information phenomenon has been characterized as the occurrence of a communication process that takes place between the sender and the recipient of the message. Thus, the various concepts of information tend to concentrate on the origin and the end point of this communication process."

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 72.

Definition on page 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493]

Information: “Information is a set of symbols that represent knowledge. Information is what context creates/gives to data. It is cognitive. Normally it is understood as a new and additional element in collecting data and information for planned action.”

Prof. Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs, Sweden. Definition 43 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is anything communicated among living things. It is one of the three mainstays supporting the survival and evolution of life, along with energy and materials.”

Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), Beijing, China. Definition 44 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data of value in decision making.”

Yovits, M. C. (1969), Information science: Toward the development of a true scientific discipline. Amer. Doc., 20: 369-376.

Information: “The word “information” is used to refer to a number of different phenomena. These phenomena have been classified into three groupings: (1) Anything perceived as potentially signifying something (e.g. printed books); (2) The process of informing; and (3) That which is learned from some evidence or communication. All three are valid uses (in English) of the term “information.” I personally am most comfortable with no. 1, then with no. 3, but acknowledge that others have used and may use no 2."

Definition 6 on pp. 480-1 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “The verb ‘inform’ normally is used in the sense to communicate (i.e., to report, relate, or tell) and comes from the Latin verb informare, which meant to shape (form) an idea. Data is persistent while information is transient, depending on context and the interpretation of the recipient. Information is data received through a communication process that proves of value in making decisions.”

Cited on page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information represents a state of awareness (consciousness) and the physical manifestations they form. Information, as a phenomena, represents both a process and a product; a cognitive/affective state, and the physical counterpart (product of) the cognitive/affective state. The counterpart could range from a scratch of a surface, movement (placement)of a rock; a gesture(movement) speech(sound), written document, etc. (requirement). Information answers questions of what, where, when and who and permutations thereof.“

Cited on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Collocations of data (information in the narrow sense — see above) that thereby become meaningful to human beings—e.g., as otherwise opaque units of binary code are collected and processed into numbers, artificial and natural languages, graphic objects that convey significance and meaning, etc. Such collocations of data can be made meaningful by human beings (as sense-making beings) especially as such data collocations/information connect with, illuminate, and are illuminated by still larger cognitive frameworks—most broadly, worldviews that further incorporate knowledge and wisdom (see below). On this definition, information can include but is not restricted to data. On the contrary, especially as Borgmann (1999) argues, there are other forms of information (natural, cultural) that are not fully reducible to data as can be transmitted, processed, and/or produced by computers and affiliated technologies.”

Cited on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is resources useful or relevant or functional for information seekers.”

Cited on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is a multi-layered concept with Latin roots (‘informatio’ = to give a form) that go back to Greek ontology and epistemology (Plato’s concept of ‘idea’ and Aristotle’s concepts of ‘morphe’ but also to such concepts as ‘typos’ and ‘prolepsis’) (See Capurro, 1978; Capurro and Hjøerland, 2003). The use of this concept in information science is at the first sight highly controversial but it basically refers to the everyday meaning (since Modernity): “the act of communicating knowledge” (OED). I would suggest to use this definition as far as it points to the phenomenon of message that I consider the basic one in information science.”

Page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information Content: “quantitative measure of information about the occurrence of an event of definite probability, equal to the logarithm of the reciprocal of this probability, that is in mathematical notation l(x) = log 1/p(x) = - log p(x) where p(x) is the probability of the occurrence of the event x”

International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 2382:2015(en) Information technology — Vocabulary. Copied 2019-06-06 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en

Information Environment: “The aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Glossary. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/information-environment

Information Environment — The aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. (JP 3-13) information

Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, (Washington DC: The Joint Staff, 2019) Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/dictionary.pdf

Information Management: “in an information processing system, functions of controlling the acquisition, analysis, retention, retrieval, and distribution of information”

International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 2382:2015(en) Information technology — Vocabulary. Copied 2019-06-06 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en

Information Management: “The function of managing an organization’s information resources for the handling of data and information acquired by one or many different systems, individuals, and organizations in a way that optimizes access by all who have a share in that data or a right to that information. Also called IM. (JP 3-0)”

Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, (Washington DC: The Joint Staff, 2019) Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/dictionary.pdf

Information Management: “n. ~ 1. Principles and techniques to process, store, retrieve, manipulate, and control access to information so that users can find information they need.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Information Officer: "A person who is responsible for the collection, searching for, and dissemination of specialized information within an organization."

Wersig G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 181.

Information Processing:The middle step in the information chain is often referred to as handling or processing. It is also sometimes called information transfer. This step occurs between information generation and information use. Between the time an item of information is first generated at its origin point, and the time a user acts upon it, information may pass through a very large number of intermediate stages, each of which may cause both its form and content to be altered significantly. The transformation of data into information is usually, but not always, one of the first steps in the information processing cycle. (p. 43)”

Horton, Forest W. (1974). How to Harness Information Resources: A Systems Approach. Cleveland: Association for Systems Management. Cited on page 172 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Information Processing: “Processing has also been taken as computer processing. Peters (1975), for example, defined 'information processing' as: All technical and commercial operations performed by computers. Normally used in a more general sense than the term data processing. (p. 85)”

Peters, Jean (1975). The Bookman's Glossary. New York: R.R. Bowker, 5th ed. Cited on page 171 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Information Retrieval: “actions, methods, and procedures for obtaining information on a given subject from stored data”

International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 2382:2015(en) Information technology — Vocabulary. Copied 2019-06-06 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en

Information Retrieval: “It is fair to say that most human communications theories have been concerned with sender initiated communications. The interest in information retrieval processes forces the communication researcher at least to consider another communication paradigm in which the dominant direction is turned around. I call this receiver initiated communication. Here the emphasis is placed not on a sender's attempt to induce changes in the receiver, but on the receiver's active search for information that would improve his own position or facilitate self modification. It begins with a request to an information source, which then returns the information wanted.” … “In receiver initiated communication, the information about the information needs precedes the transmission of information relative to the information that is transmitted” …”From information retrieval literature, I took storage to refer to the material or procedural features that have the effect of maintaining information from the past; retrieval, to refer to the process by which their content is in some way reproduced; search, to refer to the processes by which relevant information is located within storage, (p. 32)”

Krippendorff, Klaus (1975). "Some Principles of Information Storage and Retrieval in Society." General Systems 20: 15-35. Cited on page 164 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Information Retrieval: Pertinent recorded information cannot be used unless its very existence— and then its location— is discovered in a large collection. Thus "information retrieval," the discovery process, must be distinguished from the warehousing and reproduction aspects of documentation.

Mooers, C. N. (1950). "Coding, Information Retrieval, and the Rapid Selector." American Documentation 1(October): 225-229. Cited on page 130 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Retrieval (IR): “The process, methods, and procedures used to selectively recall recorded information from a file of data. In libraries and archives, searches are typically for a known item or for information on a specific subject, and the file is usually a human-readable catalog or index, or a computer-based information storage and retrieval system, such as an online catalog or bibliographic database. In designing such systems, balance must be attained between speed, accuracy, cost, convenience, and effectiveness."

Reitz, J. M. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. ABC-CLIO, LLC. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_i.aspx

Information Retrieval: “n. ~ A process that mediates between large quantities of information and users by retrieving a selected subset from the information that most nearly matches the user's request. (Notes: 'Information retrieval' generally connotes an automated system. The system may provide users with a citation, a document, or a passage within a document.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

“Information Retrieval: "The action of or methods and procedures for recovering specific information from a collection of stored data.”

Wersig G, Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 140.

Information Science: "Information science is the study of the gathering, organizing, storing, retrieving, and dissemination of information."

Bates, M. J. (1999), The invisible substrate of information science. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci., 50: 1043-1050.

Information Science: “The broadest definition would be that Information Sciences cover all human communication, and hence all of history. Such a broad viewpoint was taken by Lawrence B. Heilprin in the 1963 Annual Meeting of the American Documentation Institute, at which he included even mind-to-mind communication. . . . (page 49)”

Bohnert, L.M. (1964). "Uses of the Information Sciences from the Viewpoint of a Practicing Documentalist." In Parameters of Information Science (Proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Documentation Institute), vol. 1: 49-52. Cited on page 169 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: “Information science is that discipline that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, and the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability. it is concerned with that body of knowledge relating to the origination, collection, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, transmission, transformation, and utilization of information. This includes the investigation of information representations in both natural and artificial systems, the use of codes for efficient message transmission, and the study of information processing devices and techniques such as computers and their programming systems. It is an interdisciplinary science derived from and related to such fields as mathematics, logic, linguistics, psychology, computer technology, operations research, the graphic arts, communications, library science, management, and other similar fields. It has both a purse science component, which inquires into the subject without regard to its application, and an applied science component, which develops services and products”

Borko, H. (1968, Jan.) Information science: what is it? American Documentation, 3-5.

Information Science “The phenomena of primary interest to information science are the cognitive interactions between users and the public knowledge systems organized for ease of user reference in libraries and data bases.”(p. 248):

Brookes, B.C. (1980). "Measurement in Information Science: Objective and Subjective Metrical Space." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 31(July): 248-255. Cited on page 176 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Information Science: “Nowadays, we take the core concern of the field to be the orderly provision of data and information within an organization using IT, that informaiton being relevant ot the ever-changing activity of the organization and/or its members.”

Checkland P., and Holwell S. Information, Systems and Information Systems: making sense of the field. Chichester ; New York : Wiley, c1998. Page 39

Information Science: “The science that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, and the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability. The processes include the origination, dissemination, collection, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and use of information. The field is derived from or related to mathematics, logic, linguistics, psychology, computer technology, operations research, the graphic arts, communications, library science, management, and some other fields, (p. 115) • • •”

Conference on Training Science Information Specialists (1962). Proceedings of the Conferences on Training Science Information Specialists Georgia Institute of Technology, October 12-13, 1961 and April 12-13, 1962. Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology. Cook, Gordon (1976). "Information Science or Informatics? A Critical Survey of Recent Literature." Eric document ED 146 919. Cited on page 143 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: “Information studies information. To clarify the ambiguities of what is really a non-definition one must ask him to define "information phenomena" as well as to state what he means by "scientific study." Just how do you do the one to the other? Though Brookes admitted that he could not define information, he concluded that he could measure it by Shannon's theory which he predicted would become a theoretical "cornerstone of the new science." However, according to a 1971 paper by the Russian scholar E.P. Semeniuk [Semenyuk], that is just the problem: Shannon's theory is a theory of measurement which wholly ignores the question of what information is. (p. 20) In other words the theory which Brookes would propose as a "basic cornerstone" of information science is one which never found it necessary to develop any understanding of what was meant by information itself. (p. 21)”

Cook, Gordon (1976). "Information Science or Informatics? A Critical Survey of Recent Literature." Eric document ED 146 919. Cited on page 146 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: “Information science is an interdisciplinary field concerned with all phases of the information transfer process. (p. 3) As an interdisciplinary field, it [information science] can be viewed as a spectrum of activities ranging from information theory through information technology to service-oriented functions, such as library and information center management."(p. 4)”

Davis, Charles H. and James E. Rush (1979). Guide to Information Science. Westport: Greenwood Press. Cited on page 132 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Information Science: "Information Science is concerned with the generation, collection, organization, interpretation, storage, retrieval, dissemination, transformation, and use of information, with particular emphasis on the applications of modern technologies in these areas. As a discipline, it seeks to create and structure a body of scientific, technological, and systems knowledge related to the transfer of information. It has both pure science (theoretical) components, which inquire into the subject without regard to application, and applied science (practical) components, which develop services and products."

Griffith, Belver C. (1980). "Introduction." In Key Papers in Information Science, ed. Belver C. Griffith. Washington: Knowledge Industry Publications, pp. 1-8. Cited on page 132 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Information Science: “The science of information encompasses the theories and principles which concern the transformation of data into information. Included are the gathering, transmitting, processing, depicting, utilizing and transfer functions. Data remain data until acted upon by an organic information processor. . . . Information processing and utilization is a central phenomenon in the very existence of man, and its sociological and psychological effects can not be ignored. There is a need to perceive the information phenomenon as part of a large value system designed to optimize human development, and it is this approach that makes Information Science truly interdisciplinary. (p. 34)”

Gupta, Anand B., Donald L. Shirey and Anthony Debons (1974). "Trends in Manpower Needs in Information Science from 1967 to 1982." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 25(January-February): 33-43. Cited on page 169 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: [Taking] into account the emergence of communication science it is essential to start conceptual shaping of at least two disciplines concerned with scientific information which should be developed to meet social needs, namely: (1) Information and documentation science (this name being widely used in the GDR [German Democratic Republic] and some other countries) which can be defined ... as an "object science" (its subject field being information and documentation, i.e. documentalistic information), . . . (p. 19) (2) Information science (called so in the GDR and some other countries). In this case, information in its most general sense is viewed as a philosophical category and, consequently, philosophy is faced with the task of investigating information characteristics, structure and regularities of motion in the most general meaning. (p. 20)”

Koblitz, J. (1978). "The Essential Features of Information and Documentation Science." In Theoretical Problems of Informatics; New Trends in Informatics and its Terminology (Collection of papers from the joint meeting of the Committee "Research on Theoretical Basis of Information" and the Committee "Terminology of Information .and Documentation", Moscow, May 16-18, 1978). Moscow: All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information, 1979. FID 568, pp. 19-29. Cited on page 177 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Information Science: “[A] new scientific discipline is emerging. We might call it epistemo-dynamics. It is concerned with lawful regularities governing the acquisition of information and its transformation into knowledge, the assimilation of knowledge into understanding, the fusion of understanding into wisdom. These dynamic processes are presumed to occur in nature, of which evolving man and his societies are part. Nature, in its wisdom to date, has always evolved enough self-regulating mechanisms to ensure stability at all levels. The new discipline could become the core of the information sciences. If it does emerge as a viable scientific discipline, then, by virtue of its central concern with stability, it will, as a significant branch of knowledge which has been evolved by nature's wisdom, ensure stability, (p. 195) A necessary condition, however, for this new discipline to grow into a viable field is that it be developed in the hands of both scientists and humanists. . . . The study of the growth of knowledge in a community is partly historical, partly humanistic, partly scientific. So is the study of learning in man. [Some authors] argue for the overwhelming importance of research on research, of developing a scientific understanding of science itself. We argue . . . that this is now becoming possible.”

Kochen, Manfred (1969). "Stability in the Growth of Knowledge." American Documentation 20(July): 186-197. Cited on page 154-5 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science “Turning toward the other end of the continuum of scope, let me propose that we reject, also, the notion that information science is the science of the storage and retrieval of documents or data. That area is typified for too many people by narrowly envisioned retrieval and dissemination systems, computerized citation indexes, or conventional libraries, and it carries too strongly the connotation of storage warehouse or depot. . . . (p. 165) Thus, the term retrieval is not an adequate concept to signify the function of the domain of information science.”

Licklider, J.C.R. (1973). "Psychological and Technological Dynamics of Information Science." In Perspectives in Information Science (Proceedings or the NATO Advanced Study Institute in Information Science, Aberystwyth, August 13-24, 1973). Eds. Anthony Debons and William J. Cameron. Leyden: Noordhoff, 1975, pp. 165-180. Cited on page 166 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: “The fundamental and unifying activity of those who work in the information field— and the basic social value of the information science profession— is the facilitation of the utilization of records.”

Lipetz, Ben-Ami (1980). "Educating the Information Science Professional." Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 6 (April): 21-22. Cited on page 139 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: “[Information science] is concerned with explicating the full meaning of information, describing the properties of information, and establishing ways of measuring those properties. And information science is concerned with the formulation of theories on how to analyze, organize, relate, store, process, search for, and retrieve information. Information science is concerned fundamentally with the kinds and ways of information processing that correlate with the process of comprehending; i.e., information science, at its very core, is the scientific study of mechanisms for understanding. (pp. 46-47) [Information] can only be understood in terms of how it affects knowing systems. Thus information science is the scientific study of knowing systems (natural or artificial); i.e., it is the study of the information processing that must underline such activities as knowing, understanding, comprehending, believing, thinking, solving, etc. (p. 47)”

Maron, M.E. (1971). "Theoretical Librarianship and Information Science." In Directions in Education for Information Science (Proceedings of a Symposium for Educators, Denver, November 11-13, 1971), ed. Edmond Mignon. Washington: American Society for Information Science, 1971, pp. 42-48. Cited on page 139 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science:"(LIS) Library and Information Science as Applied Philosophy of Information is the discipline concerned with documents, their life cycles and the procedures, techniques and devices by which these are implemented, managed and regulated. LIS applies the fundamental principles and general techniques of PI to solve deŽnite, practical problems and deal with speciŽc, concrete phenomena. In turn, it conducts empirical research for practical service-oriented purposes (e.g. conservation, valorization, education, research, communication and co-operation), thus contributing to the development of basic research in PI."

On defining library and information science as applied philosophy of information LUCIANO FLORIDI. SOCIAL EPISTEMOLOGY, 2002, VOL. 16, NO. 1, 37–49

Information Science: Information science is a basic natural science which can be identified with empirical semiotics, the paradigm for the trinary natural sciences. . . . The basic concept for the foundation of the entire field of Information Science is that of the 'sign'. • • • • In fact I have many times identified information science with semiotics as constituting the same basic empirical science. However, since present-day semiotics is best known for its speculative, non-empirical adherents, while Information Science concentrates almost exclusively on its technological nonbasic engineering aspects, I have most often framed this identification by means of the aphorism: IS^ which simply means: Information Science IS Instrumentation + Semiotics. (p. 367) ”

Pearson, Charls (1980). "The Basic Concept of the Sign." Proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science, pp. 367-369. Cited on page 144 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: “Information science looks at documents and their contents as a method for promoting and controlling knowledge growth and development. As such, the document serves the literature scientist as a source and a base in his quest for knowledge synthesis and condensation, (p. 480)”

Penland, Patrick R. (1969). "Communication versus Information." Proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science, pp. 477-484. Cited on page 157 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science “[The] generalized study of the creation, recording, representation, distribution, conservation, storage, retrieval and use of recorded information has been given the name "information science."”

Rayward, W. Boyd (1977). "IFLA and FID— Is It Time for Federation?” IFLA Journal 3: 278-280. Cited on pages 136-7 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: “The systematic study and analysis of the sources, development, collection, organization, dissemination, evaluation, use, and management of information in all its forms, including the channels (formal and informal) and technology used in its communication. Compare with informatics and library science. See also: information theory.”

Reitz, J. M. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. ABC-CLIO, LLC. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_i.aspx

Information Science: "We may best understand information science as a field of study, with human recorded information as its concern, focusing on the components of the information chain, studied through the perspective of domain analysis, in specific or general contexts. Its particular focus of interest is those aspects of information organization, and of human information-related behaviour, which are invariant to changes in technology. It also has a role as a science of evaluation of information understood as semantic content with respect to qualitative growth of knowledge, and change in knowledge structures in domains."

Robinson, L. and Karamuftuoglu, M. (2010). "The nature of information science: changing models" Information Research, 15(4) colis717. [Available at http://InformationR.net/ir/15-4/colis717.html]

Information Science: “Information science deals with the problems of information handling. The main information handling operations are the production and collection of information items, starting with their initial generation; the analysis and transformation of information, including editing, printing, and/or publishing, as well as indexing, cataloging, abstracting, and summarizing of information; the organization and storage of information, including classification and deposit in data banks, libraries, and information repositories: the encoding and transmission of information from originating points to desired destinations; and finally, the retrieval of information in response to information requests, and the dissemination of the retrieved data. (p. Ill)”

Salton, G. (1969). "Information Science in a Ph.D. Computer Science Program." Communications of the ACM 12(February): 111-117. Cited on page 176 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Information Science:“Information science is the science and practice dealing with the effective collection, storage, retrieval, and use of information. It is concerned with recordable information and knowledge, and the technologies and related services that facilitate their management and use. More specifically, information science is a field of professional practice and scientific inquiry addressing the effective communication of information and information objects, particularly knowledge records, among humans in the context of social, organizational, and individual need for and use of information. The domain of information science is the transmission of the universe of human knowledge in recorded form, centering on manipulation (representation, organization, and retrieval) of information, rather than knowing information.”

Saracevic, T. (2009). Information science. In M. J. Bates (Ed.), Encyclopedia of library and information sciences (3rd ed.) (pp. 2570-2585). New York: Taylor and Francis.

Information Science: “Information science is an interdisciplinary field of study of the nature, properties, control, and use of information.”

Slamecka, Vladimir (1965). "On the Nature of Information Science and the Responsibility of Institutions of Higher Education." In Education for Information Science (Proceedings of the Symposium held Warrenton, Virginia, September 7-10, 1965). Eds. Laurence B. Heilprin, Barbara E. Markuson and Frederick L. Goodman. London: Macmillan, 1965, pages 91-93. Cited on page 139 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: “n. ~ The study of the theory and practice of creating, acquiring, processing, managing, retrieving, and disseminating information, especially the use of computers to facilitate these processes.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Information Science: “Information science is concerned with . . . the phenomena of message generation, storage, organization, structure, filters, and transfer. . . . Its objective is to explicate, to state, and to test hypotheses relevant.”

Taylor, R.S. (1972). "A Structure for Change in Education and Research in the Information/Communication Field." Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science, pp. 147-153. Cited on page 135 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

“Information Science: “The science that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, and the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability. The processes include the origination, dissemination, colletion, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and use of information. The field is derived from or related to mathematics, logic, linguistics, psychology, computer technology, operations research, the graphic arts, communications, library science management and some other fields.”

Taylor, R. S. (1966) Professional Aspects of Information Science and Technology. In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. Volume 1. 15-40.

Information Science: "The study of the properties, structure and transmission of information, and the development of methods for the useful organization of data and dissemination of information.”

Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. WersigG, Neveling U. Paris : The Unesco Press, 1976. Page 54.

Information Science:. "the scientific study of the communication of Information in society" (p. 11)

Vickery, B. C. and Vickery, A.: Information Science in Theory and Practice. London: Butterworths. (1987). Cited on page 108 of Ingwersen, P. Information and Information Science in Context, Libri 1992: Vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 99-135.

Information Science: Information science is concerned with formalizing the processes of knowledge formulation, organization, codification, retrieval, dissemination, and acquisition. The major emphasis in information storage and retrieval has been and continues to be on bibliographic materials, helping the user to identify primary or source documents that might have information relevant to his needs and interests, ... (p. 348)”

Walker, Donald E. (1981). "The Organization and Use of Information: Contributions of Information Science, Computational Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 32(September): 347-363. Cited on page 165 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Science: “… information science brings together and uses the theories, principles, techniques and technologies of a variety of disciplines toward the solution of information problems. Among the disciplines brought together in this amalgam called information science are computer sciences, cognitive science, psychology, mathematics, logic, information theory, electronics, communications, linguistics, economics, classification science, systems science, library science and management science. They are brought to bear in solving the problems with information — its generation, organization, representation, processing, distribution, communication and use.”

Williams, M. E. (1987/1988). Defining information science and the role of ASIS. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 14(2), 17-19.

Information Science: “The branch of study concerned with the properties of information flow in a generalized information system.”

Yovits, M. C. (1969), Information science: Toward the development of a true scientific discipline. Amer. Doc., 20: 369-376.

Information Science: “The subject of study of information science is empirical phenomena associated with various information processes such as information generation, transmission, transformation, compression, storage and retrieval. The ultimate purpose is to gain a better understanding of the nature of information,”

Zunde, Pranas (1981). "Information Theory and Information Science." Information Processing and Management 341-347. Cited on page 135 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Scientist: “One who studies and develops the science of information storage and retrieval, who devises new approaches to the information problem, who is interested in information in and of itself, (p. 114)”

Conference on Training Science Information Specialists (1962). Proceedings of the Conferences on Training Science Information Specialists Georgia Institute of Technology, October 12-13, 1961 and April 12-13, 1962. Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology. Cook, Gordon (1976). "Information Science or Informatics? A Critical Survey of Recent Literature." Eric document ED 146 919. Cited on page 143 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Scientist: "A person who works on the theory or application of informatics or information science; i.e. analyses, designs, implements, etc. information systems."

Wersig G. Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press, 1976. Page 181.

Information-seeking behavior: "The behavior of an individual to get some information fulfilling his subjective ‘information needs.”"

Wersig G. Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 173.

Information System: “A system which assembles, stores, processes and delivers information relevant to an organization (or to society) in such a way that the information is accessible and useful to those who wish to use it, including managers, staff, clients and citizens. An information system is a human activity (social) system which may or may not involve computer systems.”

Buckingham et al (1987, p. 18). Cited on page 3 of Steven Alter, S. Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 17(5), Oct. 2008, pp. 448469.

Information System: “Any and every information system can always be thought of as entailing a pair of systems, one a system which is served (the people taking the action), the other a system that does the serving [i.e., the processing of selected data (capta) relevant to people undertaking purposeful action].”

Checkland, P. and Holwell, S. (1998).Information, Systems, and Information Systems: making sense of the field. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK. John Wiley and Sons. Cited on page 3 of Steven Alter, S. Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 5), Oct. 2008, pp. 448-469.

Information System: “A simple definition might be that an information system is a system in the organization that delivers information and communication services needed by the organization.”

"This can be expanded to describe the system more fully. The information system or management information system of an organization consists of the information technology infrastructure, application systems, and personnel that employ information technology to deliver information and communication services for transaction processing/ operations and administration/ management of an organization. The system utilizes computer and communications hardware and software, manual procedures, and internal and external repositories of data. The systems apply a combination of automation coming human actions and user machine interaction.”

Davis, G. B. (2000) Information Systems Conceptual Foundations: Looking Backward and Forward, 61- 82. In Baskerville, R,, Stage J., and DeGross, J. I., eds., Organizational and Social Perspectives on Information Technology, Springer. Cited on page 3 of Alter, S. (2008) Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 17(5), 448-469.

Information System: [An] information system can be thought of as a communication system which provides for an unlimited amount of delay between receiver and sender, and which, therefore, must store the messages in some static medium, and which must also have the messages in a state of availability for whatever future receiver may present himself, (p- 190)” [Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science, page 162]

Doyle, Lauren B. (1975). Information Retrieval and Processing. Los Angeles: Melville Publishing. Cited on page 164 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information System: “An information system is a sub-system of an organisational system, comprising the conception of how the communication- and information–oriented aspects of an organisation are composed (e.g. of specific communicating, information-providing and/or information-seeking actors, and of specific information-oriented actands) and how these operate, thus describing the (explicit and/or implicit) communication-oriented and information–providing actions and arrangements existing within that organisation.”

Falkenberg, E. D., Hesse W., Lindgreen P, Nilsson BE, Oei JLH, Rolland C, Stamper RK, Van Assche FJM, Verrign-Stuart AA and V0ss K (1998) A Framework of Information System Concepts: The FRISCO Report, IFIP,. Pages 72-3. . Downloaded 2019-05-28 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/2937450_FRISCO_A_framework_of_information_system_concepts.

Information System: “An automated or manual collection of people, machines, and/or methods to gather, process, transmit, and disseminate data. Information systems are used to acquire, store, manipulate, manage, display, transmit, or receive data. It includes both hardware and software.”

Gray, P. (2006) Manager’s Guide to Making Decisions about Information Systems, John Wiley and Sons, Boston, MA. Cited on page 3 of Steven Alter, S. Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 5), Oct. 2008, pp. 448-469.

Information System: “An organized collection of people, information, business processes, and information technology designed to transform inputs into outputs, in order to achieve a goal.”

Huber, M.W., Piercy, C. A., and McKeown, P. G. Information Systems: Creating Business Value. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons (2007). Cited on page 3 of Steven Alter, S. Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 5), Oct. 2008, pp. 448-469.

Information System: “Assumed to mean computer-based systems, which are combinations of hardware, software, and telecommunications networks that people build and use to collect, create, and distribute useful information.”

Jessup L., and Valacich J. (2008) Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World, 3rd ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Cited on page 4 of Steven Alter, S. Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 5, Oct. 2008, pp. 448-469.

Information System: “(databases) system consisting of a conceptual schema, information base, and information processor, forming together a system for keeping and manipulating information”

International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 2382:2015(en) Information technology — Vocabulary. Copied 2019-06-06 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en

Information System: “(fundamental terms) information processing system, together with associated organizational resources such as human, technical, and financial resources, that provides and distributes information”

International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 2382:2015(en) Information technology — Vocabulary. Copied 2019-06-06 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en

Information System: A group of components that interact to produce information. [The five components of an information system are hardware, software, data, procedures, and people.]”

Kroenke, D. M. (2008). Experiencing MIS. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Page 6. Cited on page 4 of Steven Alter, S. Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 5, Oct. 2008, pp. 448-469.

Information System: “... an information system is a social system, which has embedded in it information technology. The extent to which information technology plays a part is increasing rapidly. But this does not prevent the overall system from being a social system, and it is not possible to design a robust, effective information system, incorporating significant amounts of the technology without treating it as a social system.”

Land, F. (1985). Is an Information Theory Enough? The Coimputer Journal, 28(2), 211-215.

Information System: “Interrelated components working together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization”

Laudon, K. C., and Laudon, J. P. (2007) Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm, 10th ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall. Cited on page 4 of Steven Alter, S. (2008) Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 5, 448-469.

Information System: “an organizational system that consists of technical, organizational and semiotic elements which are all re-organized and expanded during ISD [information system development] to serve an organizational purpose .”

Lyytinen, K. and Newman, M. (2006) Punctuated Equilibrium, Process Models and Information System Development and Change: Towards a Socio-Technical Process Analysis, Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Environments, Systems, and Organizations, 6(1), 1-48. Copied viewed on Sept. 1, 2008 at http://sprouts.case.edu/2006/060101.pdf MAGALHÃES

Information System: “Information systems are virtual systems; their data represents the physical system of the firm.”

McLeod R, J. R., and Schell, G. P. (2007) Management Information Systems, 10th ed., Pearson Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Page 19. Cited on pages 4-5 of Alter, S. Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 17(5), Oct. 2008, 448-469.

Information System: “A discrete set of information resources organized for the collection, processing, maintenance, use, sharing, dissemination, or disposition of information."

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Glossary. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/information-system

Information System: “(1) A set of people, procedures, and resources that collects, transforms, and disseminates information in an organization. (2) A system that accepts data resources as input and processes them into information products as output.”

O’Brien J. A. (2003) Introduction to Information Systems: Essentials for the e-Business Enterprise, 11th ed. McGraw Hill – Irwin, Boston, MA.

Information System: “The IS is what emerges from the usage that is made of the IT delivery system by users (whose strengths are that they are human beings, not machines). This usage will be made up of two parts: 1. First the formal processes, which are currently usually assumed to be pre-determinable with respect to decisions about what IT to use. … 2. Second, the informal processes, which are what the human beings who use the IT and the formal processes create or invent in order to ensure that useful work is done.”

Paul, R. (2007) Challenges to information systems: time to change. Eur J Inf Syst 16: 193. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000681

Information System: “An information system is a data table, whose columns are labeled by attributes, rows are labeled by objects of interest and entries of the table are attribute values.”

Pawlak Z (2002) Rough sets and intelligent data analysis, Information Sciences, 147, 1-12

Information System: “A process that collects, processes, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information for a specific purpose; most ISs are computerized.“

Rainer, R. K, Turban, E., and Potter R. E. (2007) Introduction to Information Systems, John Wiley and Sons. Page 393. Cited on page 4 of Steven Alter, S. (2008). Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 5. 448-469.

Information System (IS): “A computer hardware and software system designed to accept, store, manipulate, and analyze data and to report results, usually on a regular, ongoing basis. An IS usually consists of a data input subsystem, a data storage and retrieval subsystem, a data analysis and manipulation subsystem, and a reporting subsystem. Widely used in scientific research, business management, medicine and health, resource management, and other fields that require statistical reporting, information systems can be broadly classified as spatial or nonspatial, depending on whether the data refers to a system of spatial coordinates. See also: geographic information system, management information system, and spatial information system.”

Reitz, J. M. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. ABC-CLIO, LLC. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_i.aspx

Information System: “n. ~ An organized set of procedures and techniques designed to store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze, and display information.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Information System: “An information system is “a complex social object which results from the embedding of computer systems into an organization … where it is not possible to separate the technical from the social factors given the variety of human judgments and actions, influenced by cultural values, political interests and participants’ particular definitions of their situations intervening in the implementation of such a system.”

Symons, V. J. (1991). Impacts of Information Systems: four perspectives. Information and Software Technology, 33: 181-190. Cited on page 6 of Cited on page 167 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University Bloomington.

Information System: “An information system is a pair A = (U, A), where U - is a nonempty, finite set called the universe and A - is a nonempty, finite set of attributes.”

Tadeusz L and Rybnik J (1992) Rough Sets and Some Aspects of Logic Synthesis, 181- 201 in Slowinski R, ed., Intelligent Decision Support: Handbook of Applications and Advances of the Rough Sets Theory,” Springer, 1992. Cited on page 5 of Steven Alter, S. Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 5), Oct. 2008, pp. 448-469.

Information System: “Information systems are the means by which organizations and people, utilizing information technologies, gather, process, store, and use and disseminate information.”

United Kingdom Academy for Information Systems (UKAIS) (1997), Newsletter of the UKAIS 3, cited by MONARCH IA “Information Science and Information Systems: Converging or Diverging? Viewed 2019-05-27 at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.458.5236rep=rep1type=pdf

Information System: “Information systems are primarily intended to model the states and behavior of some existing or conceived real world system.” … “We conceive of an information system as an object that can be studied in its own right, independently of the way it is deployed in its organizational and social context, and the technology used to implement it. In other words, when modeling an information system we are not concerned with the way it is managed in organizations, the characteristics of its users, the way it is implemented, the way it is used, the impact it has on such factors as quality of working life or the distribution of power in organizations or the type of hardware or software used to make it operational.”

Wand, Y., and Weber, R. (1990) Toward a Theory of the Deep Structure of Information Systems, in DeGross, J., Alavi, M., and Oppelland H, eds., Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Information Systems, Copenhagen, Denmark: 61-71. Cited on pages 4-5 of Steven Alter, S. Defining Information Systems as Work Systems: Implications for the IS Field, European Journal of Information Systems, 17(5), Oct. 2008, 448-469.

Information System: “An information system is an integrated and cooperating set of software directed information technologies supporting individual, group, organizational, or societal goals.”

Watson, R. T. ed. (2007) Information Systems. Global Text Project. Retrieved 2019-05-28 from https://archive.org/details/ost-computer-science-information-systems/page/n7

Information System “An 'information system' then may be understood as a 'system the objectives of which are to organise communication processes, particularly between human beings, in order to effect optimal information'. i • « » The interrelations between these components may be described as operations enacted by personnel or material devices upon material devices or data carriers using rules and conceptual devices. The objectives direct these operations to fulfil the information needs of the clientele of the system thus enabling the system to transform incoming messages from various sources into output messages with a high capacity for fulfilling the information needs of the clientele, (p. 20) The heart of the system (but not the system itself) is the 'transformation function'.... (page 21)”

Wersig, Gernot and Thomas Seeger (1975). Future Main Trends of Information Systems and Their Implications for Specializations of Information Personnel. Frankfurt: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Dokuraentation. FID/ET Occasional Paper 2. Cited on pages 170-1 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Information Theory: “The systematic statement of principles concerning the phenomenon of information and its transmission, based on the collection and analysis of quantitative and qualitative data as a means of testing hypotheses about its nature and properties. Compare with informatics.”

Reitz, J. M. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. ABC-CLIO, LLC. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_i.aspx

Informon: “This necessitates another quantity which implies a significance to the information or observables. This is appropriately called the value of information.” … “The unit of information (which as we have indicated must be relative to any particular situation) is the smallest amount of information that will produce a change in the observables.” … “This is the unit of information in terms of which [triangle : italic I] We call this elementary unit an informon.”

Yovits, M. C. (1969), Information science: Toward the development of a true scientific discipline. Amer. Doc., 20: 369-376.

Interoperability: “For the purposes of this standard, interoperability allows any government facility or information system, regardless of the PIV Issuer, to verify a cardholder’s identity using the credentials on the PIV Card.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Glossary. Retrieved 2019-06-01 at https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/Interoperability

Interoperability: “1. The ability to act together coherently, effectively, and efficiently to achieve tactical, operational, and strategic objectives. (JP 3-0) 2. The condition achieved among communications-electronics systems or items of communicationselectronics equipment when information or services can be exchanged directly and satisfactorily between them and/or their users. (JP 6-0)”

Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, (Washington DC: The Joint Staff, 2019) Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/dictionary.pdf

Interoperability: “The capability of a computer hardware or software system to communicate and work effectively with another system in the exchange of data, usually a system of a different type, designed and produced by a different vendor.”

Reitz, J. M. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. ABC-CLIO, LLC. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_i.aspx

Interoperability: “n. ~ Computing · The ability of different systems to use and exchange information through a shared format.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Knowledge: “Knowledge is embodied in humans as the capacity to understand, explain and negotiate concepts, actions and intentions.”

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Copenhagen, Denmark. Definition 1 on page 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is knowing, familiarity gained by experience; person’s range of information; a theoretical or practical understanding of; the sum of what is known.”

Prof. Elsa Barber, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Definition 2 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493..

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information that has been appropriate by the user. When information is adequately assimilated, it produces knowledge, modifies the individual’s mental store of information and benefits his development and that of the society in which he lives. Thus, as the mediating agent in the production of knowledge, the information, qualifies itself, in form and substance, as significant structures able to generate knowledge for the individual and his group.”

Prof. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 3 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is what has understood and evaluated by the knower.”

Prof. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Definition 4 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is that which is objectively known, an intellectual property, attached to a name or a group of names and certified by copyright or some other form of social recognition (e.g. publication). This knowledge is paid for - in the time spent in writing and research, in the monetary compensation by the communication and educational media. It is subject to a judgement by the market, by administrative or political decisions of superiors, or by peers as to the worth of the result, and as to its claim on social resources, where such claims are made. In this sense, knowledge is part of the social overhead investment of society; it is a coherent statement, presented in a book, article, or even a computer program, written down or recorded at some point for transmission, and subject to some rough count&dquo;

Bell D. (1973) The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books. Cited on page 36 of Neill S.D. (1982). Brookes, Popper, and objective knowledge. Journal of Information Science, 4, 33-39.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is structured and organized information that has developed inside of a cognitive system or is part of the cognitive heritage of an individual (based on Peirce, C.S. (1958). Writings of Charles S. Peirce. A chronological edition. A.W. Burke (Ed.) (Vol. VII–VIII). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.; Hartshorne & Weiss, 1931)."

Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome 1, Italy. Definition 5 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “The word “knowledge” is best used to refer to what someone knows, which is, in effect, what they believe, including belief that some of the beliefs of others should not be believed. By extension the word “knowledge” is used more loosely for (1) what social groups know collectively; and (2) what is in principle knowable because it has been recorded somehow and could be recovered even though, at any given time, no individual knows (or remembers) it.”

Prof. Michael Buckland, University of California, Berkeley, CA. Definition 6 on page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the general understanding and awareness garnered from accumulated information, tempered by experience, enabling new contexts to be envisaged.”

Dr. Quentin L. Burrell, Isle of Man International Business School, Isle of Man. Definition 7 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is that which is known, and it exists in the mind of the knower in electrical pulses. Alternatively, it can be disembodied into symbolic representations of that knowledge (at this point becoming a particular kind of information, not knowledge). Strictly speaking, represented knowledge is information. Knowledge — that which is known — is by definition subjective, even when aggregated to the level of social, or public, knowledge — which is the sum, in a sense, of individual “knowings.” Data and information can be studied as perceived by and “embodied” (known) by the person or as found in the world outside the person...”

Prof. Thomas A. Childers, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Definition 9 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge involves both data and the relationships among data elements or their sets. This organization of data based on relationships is what enables one to draw generalizations from the data so organized, and to formulate questions about which one wishes to acquire more data. That is, knowledge begets the quest for knowledge, and it arises from verified or validated ideas (Sowell, 1996).”

Prof.Charles H. Davis, Indiana University. Definition 10 on page 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge consists of an organized body of information, such information patterns forming the basis of the kinds of insights and judgments which we call wisdom. The above conceptualization may be made concrete by a physical analogy (Stonier, 1993): consider spinning fleece into yarn, and then weaving yarn into cloth. The fleece can be considered analogous to data, the yarn to information and the cloth to knowledge. Cutting and sewing the cloth into a useful garment is analogous to creating insight and judgment (wisdom). This analogy emphasizes two important points: (1) going from fleece to garment involves, at each step, an input of work, and (2) at each step, this input of work leads to an increase in organization, thereby producing a hierarchy of organization.”

Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Mälardalen University, Västerås/Eskilstuna, Sweden. Definition 12 on p. 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is understood information (answering following basic questions: why?, how?, for which purpose?).”

Prof. Nicolae Dragulanescu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania. Definition 14 on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493. [Cites Debons, A., Horne, E., and Cronenweth, S. (1988). Information science: An integrated view. New York: G.K. Hall.]

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a personal/cognitive framework that makes it possible for humans to use information.”

Prof. Raya Fidel, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Definition 17 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a set of conceptual structures held in human brains and only imperfectly represented by information that can be communicated. Knowledge cannot be communicated by speech or any form of writing, but can only be hinted at.”

Dr. H.M. Gladney, HMG Consulting, McDonald, PA. Definition 19 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); it can be more or less formal or systematic. In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology; the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", though this definition is now thought by some analytic philosophers[citation needed] to be problematic because of the Gettier problems while others defend the platonic definition. However, several definitions of knowledge and theories to explain it exist. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communication, and reasoning; while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgement in human beings.”

Haider, S. Glossary of Library and Information Science, Librarianship Studies and Information Technology. Retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2017/11/knowledge.html.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is one or more sets of relatively stable information. A Message is one or more inferred data sets gleaned from external or internal energetic reactions.”

Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Definition 20 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information that has been given meaning and taken to a higher level. Knowledge emerges from analysis, reflection upon, and synthesis of information. It is used to make a difference in an enterprise, learn a lesson, or solve a problem.”

Dr. Donald Hawkins, Information Today, Medford, NJ. Definition 21 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is dynamic objects of cultural experience having the aspect of being action-neutral and a dual nature of abstracting to and from the world.”

Mr. Ken Herold, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Definition 23 on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the rules and organizing principles gleaned from data to aggregate it into information.”

Prof. William Hersh, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR. Definition 24 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information with more context and understanding, perhaps with the addition of rules to extend definitions and allow inference.”

Prof. Donald Kraft, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Definition 26 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the result of forming in mind an idea of something.”

Prof. Yves François Le Coadic, National Technical University, Lyon, France. Definition 27 on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the appropriation of information in the process of learning, acting, interpreting. Knowledge is in the head of people, yet knowledge can be shared. Knowledge refers to the way information is used during the intellectual process.”

Dr. Jo Link-Pezet, Urfist, and University of Social Sciences, France. Definition 28 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: "Knowledge is the ability to use information (contextualized data) to achieve one's objectives."

Robert Logan, Understanding New Media. Apple Books. Page 52.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is tacitly or consciously grasped and interiorized content of information related and meaningfully integrated into a unifying frame of experience among other information contents interiorized in the same way, the complex of which reflects subjective understanding of environment. Mistakes arise from integration of misinformation or from integration of contradictory information into a unifying frame of experience (the second leads to cognitive dissonance and motivates to seek another information).”

Mr. Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic. Definition 29 on page 484-5 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information that is understood, further to its utilization, stored, retrievable and reusable under appropriate circumstances or conditions.”

Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT management consultant, France. Definition 30 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a reservoir of information that is stored in the human mind. It essentially constitutes the information that can be “retrieved” from the human mind without the need to consult external information sources.”

Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Definition 31 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58,479-493.

Knowledge: “a body of information applied directly to the performance of a function.”

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Glossary. retrieved 2019-06-01 from https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary/term/Knowledge

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a combination of information and a person’s experience, intuition and expertise.”

Prof. Charles Oppenheim, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 32 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a social and cognitive process formed by the passing or assimilated information to thought and to action.”

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the intelligent information processing by the receiver and it consequent incorporation to the individual or social memory”

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST>, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge hints to either a systematic framework (e.g., laws, rules or regularities, that is higher-order “abstractions” from data) or what somebody or some community knows (“I know that you are married”). In this latter sense knowledge presents a “subjective” side.”

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is apparently not reducible solely to information and data. The problem is to understand ‘what is lacking’, what must be added to information and data in order to achieve true knowledge. My claim is that the meaning of a sign is given by the position of the sign in a field of signs (in a space). On the other hand, the content of a sign is given by the position of the item (denoted by the sign) in a field of items. Data, information, meanings and contents cover the field of knowledge. This amounts to saying that we have knowledge when we know (1) which item is denoted by which sign, (2) the item’s proximal context, (3) the item’s distal contexts, (4) the sign’s position in the field of signs, (5) the item’s position in the field of items.”

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy - Poli, R. (2001). ALWIS. Ontology for knowledge engineers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Knowledge: "Since all knowledge is theory-impregnated, it is all built on sand; but it can be improved by critically digging deeper, and not by taking any alleged ’data’ for granted."

Popper K. R. (1973) Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach Oxford: Clarendon Press. Cited on page 36 of Neill S.D. (1982). Brookes, Popper, and objective knowledge. Journal of Information Science, 4, 33-39.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the summation of information into independent concepts and rules that can explain relationships or predict outcomes.”

Mr. Scott Seaman, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Definition 37 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is what is known, more than data, but not yet information. Recorded knowledge may be accessed in formal ways. Unrecorded knowledge is accessible in only chaotic ways.”

Prof. Richard Smiraglia, Long Island University, Brookville, NY. Definition 38 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the considered product of information. Selection as to what is valid and relevant is a necessary condition of the acquisition of knowledge.”

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 39 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is internalized or understood information that can be used to make decisions.”

Prof. Carol Tenopir, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Definition 40 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information scripted into relations with recipient experiences.”

Joanne Twining, Intertwining.org, a virtual information consultancy, USA. Definition 41 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is meaningful content assimilated for use. The three entities can be viewed as hierarchical in terms of complexity, data being the simplest and knowledge, the most complex of the three. Knowledge is the product of a synthesis in our mind that can be conveyed by information, as one of many forms of its externalization and socialization.”

Prof. Anna da Soledade Vieira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Definition 42 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is enriched information by a person’s or a system’s own experience. It is cognitive based. Knowledge is not transferable, but through information we can communicate about it. (Note that the highest level of information processing is the generation of wisdom, where various kinds of knowledge are communicated and integrated behind an action.”

Prof. Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs, Sweden. Definition 43 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a human construct, which categorize things, record significant events, and find causal relations among things and/or events, etc. in a systematic way.”

Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), Beijing, China. Definition 44 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is ‘no-thing’ (contrary to “information-as-thing” as suggested by Michael Buckland, 1991a), i.e., it is the event of meaning selection of a (psychic/social) system from its ‘world’ on the basis of communication. The “act of communicating knowledge” (OED’s definition of information) is then to be understood as the act of making a meaning offer (=message) leading to understanding (and misunderstanding) on the basis of a selection of meaning (=information). To know is then to understand on the basis of making a difference between ‘message’ (or meaning offer) and ‘information’ (or meaning selection). Human knowledge is, as Popper states, basically conjectural. Or, to put it in hermeneutic terms: understanding is always biased, i.e., based on (implicit) pre-understanding. In more classical terms we distinguish following Aristotle between ‘empirical knowledge’ (or ‘know-how’ = ‘empeiria’) and explicit knowledge (or ‘know-that’, for instance, scientific knowledge or ‘episteme’).”

Page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge represents a cognitive/affective state that finds definition in meaning and understanding. Knowledge is reflected in the questions of “how” and “why.” Knowledge extends the organism state of awareness (consciousness/ information). Knowledge can be given physical representation (presence) in the material products (technology) thereof (books, film, speech, etc.).”

Cited on page 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge Management: “n. ~ The administration and oversight of an organization's intellectual capital by managing information and its use in order to maximize its value.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Librarianship: [Librarianship] ...“is the working tool of science, schools, popular education, public administration, press, commerce, industry, art, music, theater, and film and hence intimately linked to their fate.”

Grasberger, Franz (1954). "On the Psychology of Librarianship." Library Quarterly 24(January, 1954): 35-46. Reprinted in John David Marshall, Wayne Shirley, and Louis Shores, eds. Books, Libraries, Librarians; Contributions to Library Literature. Hamden: Shoe String, 1955.

Library: “A library must be arranged in such a way as to render speedily accessible whatever books are required to fill every literary need.”

Grasberger, Franz (1954). "On the Psychology of Librarianship." Library Quarterly 24(January, 1954): 35-46. Reprinted in John David Marshall, Wayne Shirley, and Louis Shores, eds. Books, Libraries, Librarians; Contributions to Library Literature. Hamden: Shoe String, 1955.

Library: “Perhaps the Shera-Egan definition should be revised to: "to maximize the greatest potentially attainable effective and efficient social utilization of documented knowledge. " Note that we also substituted the more abstract term "documented knowledge" for the "graphic records of civilization," to include non-graphic embodiments of documented— i.e., validated— truths, such as magnetic tape recordings.

Kochen, Manfred (1973). "Referential Consulting Networks." In Conrad H. Rawski, ed. Toward a Theory of Librarianship; Papers in Honor of Jesse Hauk Shera. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1973. Cited on page 81 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Library: Libraries are communication systems, analogous to the human memory. They store, retrieve and disseminate information, knowledge and data. . . . [It] is probable that the most difficult function of the library is that of retrieval, and there is much to be said for making this the focus for all studies in librarianship.

Orr, J. M. (1977). "Communication Studies in the Education of the Librarian." In Curriculum Development in Librarianship and Information Science (Proceedings of a Workshop, College of Librarianship Wales, 1977). London: British Library, British Library Research and Development Reports No. 5439, 1978, pp. 58-63. Cited on page 37 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Library: “...from its very beginnings, the central and unifying concept of the library has been its dedication to assembling, preserving, and making available for use the records of human experience.”

Shera, Jesse H. (1972). The Foundations of Education for Librarianship. New York: John Wiley, 1972. Cited on page 36 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Library: “...the social function, or role of the library, is to maximize the effective social utilization of the graphic records of civilization.” (p. 359)

Shera, Jesse H. (1972). The Foundations ofEducation for Librarianship. New York: John Wiley, 1972. Cited on page 81 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and InformationScience. (Doctoral dissertation)

Library: “n. ~ 1. A collection of published materials, including books, magazines, sound and video recordings, and other formats. - 2. A building used to house such a collection. - 3. Computing · Commonly used subroutines or functions collected for use in different programs.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, . At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Library: “Library in this report refers to a collection of information resources curated for a designated community and providing services around those resources. In this definition, libraries may be public or private, large or small, and are not limited to any particular types of resources. While discovery and delivery of resources are important services, preservation of resources is a key library activity that is not within the mission of non-library institutions, and therefore should be given particular attention.”

W3C (2011, November 16) “Library terminology informally explained” Retrieved from https://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Library_terminology_informally_explained on 2019-05-29.

Library: "Any organized collection of printed books and periodicals or of any other graphic or audio-visual materials and the service of a staff to provide and facilitate the use of such materials as are required to meet the informational, research, educational or recreational needs of its users."

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 178.

Library:The long history of libraries . . . clearly indicates that society has found libraries essential to the dissemination and preservation of information. This is what I take to be the fundamental purpose of libraries. (p. 69)” On page 70

Williams, Gordon R. (1980). "The Function and Methods of Libraries in the Diffusion of Knowledge. Library Quarterly 50(January): 58-75. Cited on page 37 of Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science.

Library, Digital: See "Digital Library"

Library Science: “Historically, we can view library science as an expanding subject. For many centuries we regarded ourselves as conservationists; later, we began to structure this act of conservation by the use of catalogues or other guides to what had been conserved. More recently we have become concerned with two aspects of use; the problem of retrieval of specific information from a large store, and the information gathering habits of specific classes of user.”

Corrigan, P. (1968). "A Model System of Bibliographic Organization for Library Science Literature." (Preprint of a paper for the proceedings of the Conference on the Bibliographic Control of Library Science Literature, State University of New York at Albany, April 19-20, 1968.) Cited on page 71 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

Library Science: [Library science encompasses] “...all precepts necessary to the practical organization of a library, provided that they are based on sound principles and reducible to one supreme principle . . . [namely, that] a library must be arranged in such a way as to render speedily accessible whatever books are required to fill every literary need."

Schrettinger, 1808 Grasberger, Franz (1954). "On the Psychology of Librarianship." Library Quarterly 24(January, 1954): 35-46. Reprinted in John David Marshall, Wayne Shirley, and Louis Shores, eds. Books, Libraries, Librarians; Contributions to Library Literature. Hamden: Shoe String, 1955. Green, Samuel Swett (1896). "Libraries as Bureaus of Information." Library Journal 21(July, 1896).

Memory: "It seems preferable to define memory as a set of potential organizations, that is, possible and optional ; or, to be more precise, as a system capable of generating organized structures&dquo; (p. 196)."

Ehrlich S. Semantic memory: a free-elements system. in: C.R. Puff, ed., Memory Organization and Structure (Academic Press, New York, 1979) pp. 195-218. Cited on page 34 of Neill S.D. (1982). Brookes, Popper, and objective knowledge. Journal of Information Science, 4, 33-39.

Message “Message is a medium through which data; information and knowledge are transmitted and used. It represents an instrument for moving the state of awareness and meaning with reference to specific events (states, conditions) from one implicit, or explicit source to another. When the physical products of awareness are transferred from one source to another, reference to the collective domain can be realized.”

Prof. Anthony Debons, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Definition 11 on page 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Message: 1. Any thought or idea expressed briefly in a plain or secret language and prepared in a form suitable for transmission by any means of communication. (JP 6-0) 2. A narrowly focused communication directed at a specific audience to support a specific theme. Also called MSG. (JP 3-61)”

Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, (Washington DC: The Joint Staff, 2019) Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/dictionary.pdf

Message: “Information is conveyed by a carrier which has a physical component. This carrier is called a 'MESSAGE * in a very broad sense. . . . The atomic carriers of information are called * SIGNS'. Signs thus form the most basic concept of information science. (pp. 367-368) … Information is thus carried in messages which are systems of one or more signs. In written alphabetic languages the system is a string; therefore a message is a string of one or more sign. However, in a painting, the message is a two-dimensional structure of one or more signs and in a piece of sculpture or a work of architecture the message is a three-dimensional structure of one or more signs, (p. 368)”

Pearson, Charls (1980). "The Basic Concept of the Sign." Proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science, pp. 367-369. Cited on page 144 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Message: “Message is the meaningful content of information.”

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Message: "(1) An ordered sequence of characters, intended to convey ‘information’ (2) A set of signs emitted by a ‘communicator’ or received by a ‘recipient’"

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 75.

Message: “Data, information, knowledge, message. I am unable to understand why data, information, knowledge and message are placed on the same level of analysis. I would suggest considering message as the “vehicle” carrying either data or information (which can be taken as synonymous). Knowledge hints to either a systematic framework (e.g., laws, rules or regularities, that is higher-order “abstractions” from data) or what somebody or some community knows (“I know that you are married”). In this latter sense knowledge presents a “subjective” side.”"

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. [Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Message “Following systems theory and second-order cybernetics, I suggest to distinguish between ‘message’, ‘information’ and ‘understanding.’ All three concepts constitute the concept of communication (See, for instance, Luhmann, 1996, with references to biology (Maturana/Varela), cybernetics etc.). A ‘message’ is a ‘meaning offer’ while ‘information’ refers to the selection within a system and ‘understanding’ to the possibility that the receiver integrates the selection within his/her preknowledge — constantly open to revision i.e. to new communication—in accordance with the intention(s) of the sender. The receiver mutates each time into a sender.”

Page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Processing: "Processing" can be thought of as a family of operations, each of which acts uniformly on every item of information presented, and includes the idea of having the items in a place available and in a form available for ultimate use. "Retrieval," also in a broad sense, suggests all processes that are selective in nature; this— the case can be made— would even include the process of reading, for the mind is very selective indeed in extracting information from the printed page. (p. 16)

Doyle, Lauren B. (1975). Information Retrieval and Processing. Los Angeles: Melville Publishing. Cited on page 162 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Record: “the broadest sense, anything durable that can convey meaning can be regarded as a record. . . . “

Lipetz, Ben-Ami (1980). "Educating the Information Science Professional." Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 6 (April): 21-22. Cited on page 139 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Record: “Record: A collection of related items of data treated as a unit and fixed on a data medium.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 92.

Reference: “Reference: A ‘citation’ referring to a document or passage.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 95.

Retrieval: "Processing" can be thought of as a family of operations, each of which acts uniformly on every item of information presented, and includes the idea of having the items in a place available and in a form available for ultimate use. "Retrieval," also in a broad sense, suggests all processes that are selective in nature; this— the case can be made— would even include the process of reading, for the mind is very selective indeed in extracting information from the printed page. (p. 16)

Doyle, Lauren B. (1975). Information Retrieval and Processing. Los Angeles: Melville Publishing. Cited on page 162 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation).

Retrieval “Retrieval... is communication in time, . . . The information source is here a document in which information is recorded for later use. . . . But the 'source' in Retrieval is not the active, transmitting agent that it is in telecommunication. It is the 'receiver' who sends the message, a request for documents on a certain subject, and this message is not simply encoded and transmitted, it is transformed from descriptors to addresses and thence into documents, and fed back to the sender. The 'transformer' is the selector which searches the descriptor file, and the 'decoder' is the locator which searches and extracts items from the document store, the only source of new information for the 'destination'. ... In applying information theory, we must be sure that it is in accord with our Retrieval diagram.(p. 6)”

Vickery, B.C. (1961). On Retrieval System Theory. London: Butterworths. Cited on page 169 of Schrader, A.M. (1983). Toward a Theory of Library and Information Science. (Doctoral dissertation)

User Relevance Response: The degree of correspondence of the outputs of an information or documentation system and the needs of the user expressed by the user.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 171